Hugo Liepmann, Parkinson’s disease and upper limb apraxia

Congratulations Dr. Kenneth Heilman, on the publication of “Hugo Liepmann, Parkinson’s disease and upper limb apraxia,” in the July 21st issue of Cortex.


It has now been 100 years since Hugo Liepmann, in his classic 1920 paper described limb kinetic, ideomotor, and ideational apraxia. There are now several rating scales used to assess and grade the signs and symptoms associated with Parkinson’s disease; however, none of these assesses patients for the presence of these disabling forms of upper limb apraxia. This paper, reviews the types of apraxia that can be associated with Parkinson’s disease, how they can be tested, the disabilities associated with these disorders and possible treatments.