Diagnosis and management of functional tic-like phenomena

Congratulations to Drs. Irene Malaty and Michael Okun on the publication of “Diagnosis and management of functional tic-like phenomena.”  This article was published in the August 21st edition of OSF Preprints.


Over the past 3 years, a global phenomenon has emerged characterized by the sudden onset and frequently rapid escalation of tics and tic-like movements and phonations. These symptoms have occurred not only in youth known to have tics or Tourette syndrome (TS), but also, and more notably, in youth with no prior history of tics. The Tourette Association of America (TAA) convened an international, multidisciplinary working group to better understand this apparent presentation of functional neurological disorder (FND) and its relationship to TS. Here we review and summarize the literature relevant to distinguish the two, with recommendations to clinicians for diagnosis and management. Finally, we highlight areas for future emphasis and research.